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Category Archive : Legal Law

What is a Permanent Bail?

Permanent Bail

A bail is a conditional release of an accused person from legal custody in matters that are yet to be pronounced by the Court. It is essentially a sum of money or collateral that a person agrees to deposit with the court as an assurance that they will show up for their trial. In case the accused does not appear in court for his/her trial, the money that was deposited is confiscated by the court.

There are many different types of bail, but the most common is cash. The bail amount is usually set by the court based on the nature of the offense and the person’s criminal history. The judge considers the person’s ability to post the bail and also the impact that a failure to attend court will have on loved ones who may be required to pay a fee to a bail bondsman.

The purpose of bail is to encourage a defendant to come to court and to ensure that he or she is there for the trial, which is important for both the justice system and society in general. A failure to attend a trial can result in the conviction of the accused and a prison sentence, which is why the courts try to get people on trial as quickly as possible.

What is a Permanent Bail?

It is a widely accepted practice that the person’s liberty must be protected by the law, and the law gives judges the discretion to grant or deny bail. However, this freedom is a delicate balance that has to be carefully calibrated. Unlike in the United States, where there are laws that regulate the pretrial detention of suspects and impose conditions on bail, the Indian courts have a more relaxed approach to this question. Unlike in the United States, where pre-trial detention is often used as a tool to harass poor and minority groups, courts in India rarely use pretrial detention to pressure suspects to plead guilty.

Another aspect of the bail system is whether the suspect is a flight risk. This is determined by considering a number of factors including:

If the court believes that the defendant will not attend trial and will likely flee, they can order the bail to be suspended or cancelled. This is a very serious order and can only be issued by a judge who has been given the power to do so under section 3142 of the CrPC. A judge must be convinced that the suspect will not only try to escape but that they will also obstruct or threaten justice or a witness.

Generally, it is more difficult to cancel or suspend a bail than to grant one. However, this can be done when the court is satisfied that there is a real risk of the accused escaping to another nation, that they are trying to conceal evidence or being inaccessible to the investigation or that they have been convicted of offences that are non-bailable. In such cases, the court can also cancel a bail that has been granted on default or after the expiry of the stipulated time for investigation and prior to the submission of the charge sheet.

Do Maui Fire Lawyers Offer Free Consultations?

Offer Free Consultations

Seeing your home and land that you have worked hard for engulfed in a raging inferno is not something most people can comprehend. Experiencing the death of a loved one because of senseless, preventable wildfires is even more heart-wrenching. Those who are left to cope with the destruction of their homes, property and livelihood should contact a lawyer who can help them file a lawsuit to recover compensation for their losses. The attorneys at the law firm of Galiher Law can assist fire victims in filing a claim against those responsible for this tragic event.

The Maui fire lawyers at Galiher Law have extensive experience representing clients in lawsuits against large corporations for negligence and other violations of the law. They will work tirelessly to get you the compensation you deserve for your loss.

A lawyer can help you understand your legal rights and how best to move forward in the aftermath of a disaster such as a Hawaii wildfire. They can assist you in preparing the necessary documentation for your insurance claim and ensuring that your rights are protected throughout the process. The fires that burned through Maui were incredibly destructive and devastating for thousands of individuals and families. The fires were fueled by the extreme weather conditions that ravaged the island and by the failure to implement adequate wildfire prevention practices at Hawaii Electric and MECO.

Do Maui Fire Lawyers Offer Free Consultations?

Wrongful death lawsuits have already been filed against the utility company as a result of this tragedy, and many more are expected to follow. According to numerous sources, including news reports, witness testimony and evidence collected from the site of the Lahaina fires, MECO was negligent in a variety of ways, including failing to maintain its electrical equipment and failing to shut off power in high-risk conditions.

Maui wild fire attorney

Fires can turn resorts, condominiums, apartments, time-share properties and other businesses into ashes in the blink of an eye. When this happens, many survivors rely on their fire and property insurance to cover their losses. However, it is not uncommon for insurance companies to deny or delay the payment of claims. Our Maui fire insurance lawyers can help victims recover the full value of their losses from the insurance company.

We can also assist with other types of insurance claims, such as a claim for lost rental income or damages resulting from the interruption of business due to the fires. If you or someone you know has been impacted by the recent Hawaii wildfires, please contact our team of experienced lawyers immediately to discuss your case.

The advantage of the pass-through dishwasher

If you’re still washing dishes by hand in your business, then you could be spending thousands of dollars more on your wage bill than you need to and taking much longer to wash than you need to. You’ll also find that an automatic dishwasher will clean them much better and faster than you could by hand.

Now for a small business you might think you could get away with using a household machine to wash your dishes, but never do as they can take an hour to complete a cycle compared to just a few minutes for a commercial grade machine.

For a small business, we generally suggest purchasing an undercounter or abovecounter dishwasher, which can give you a 1-3 minute cleaning cycle. They work very efficiently using extremely hot water, which means that as your dishes and dinnerware come out of the machine, the residual heat contained in them is such that they will dry naturally in just seconds.

However, if you have a larger business, we suggest investing in one of the latest walk-through dishwashers, such as the Maidaid Halcyon, which are similar in nature to earlier countertop dishwashers but have a more automated throughput process. Typically, a walk-through dishwasher will feature a top-and-top wash unit and a counter on each side of the top-and-top unit. This allows for a rack of dishware to be in the dishwasher, one full of dirty dishes on one side, ready to go, and more counter space to slide clean dishware, on the other side of the unit once it has been cleaned.

These walk-through dishwashers have a major advantage over traditional countertop machines in that they allow the operator to get into a routine where the machine can be kept running constantly, thus providing a steady stream of clean dishes and crockery back into the restaurant.

Typically these machines will have a variable number of programs, which can wash dishes in just 70 seconds, and typically take no more than 150 seconds for a full cycle, which is very fast, to say the least.

These machines will have a gravity drain or can be fitted with a drain pump where a large capacity is required. These machines are extremely easy to use with one-touch controls that set up an automated program that runs for the ultimate in ease of use. They also feature break tanks, which safely dispose of any broken crockery or glass away from the operator’s hands.

Therefore, we recommend that you take a look at the latest pass-through dishwashers if you want to speed up your dishwashing.

Licensing your copyrighted works

If you have taken the necessary steps to register your copyrighted works, you will inevitably have the opportunity to obtain royalties from them. To take advantage of the opportunity, you will need to be familiar with copyright license agreements.

Copyright License Agreement

A copyright license agreement sets out the terms under which a third party can use your content. In legal language, you will be the “licensor” and the other party will be the “licensee”. The purpose of the agreement is to set forth the terms under which you, the licensor, will grant a third party, the licensee, the right to use, publish, or reuse your copyrighted work in exchange for a royalty. Let’s take a closer look at the key components of the license agreement.

Specific Rights Granted

This may seem obvious, but the agreement should spell out exactly what copyrighted material can be used. If you have copyrighted items, are you granting the right to use all of the items or just some? It is strongly recommended that the agreement contain a detailed description of the exact materials that are covered.

Once you agree to the exact materials, you must determine any restrictions on how the material may be used. Can the material be used online or will it be restricted to a certain niche, such as manuals or collections of materials?

An extremely important question is whether the agreement grants exclusive or non-exclusive rights. In English, this simply defines whether the licensor can grant similar rights to other parties. Granting exclusive licenses should require a much higher royalty rate, since you are basically betting that the third party will succeed.

license royalties

In exchange for your copyrighted work, the third party will make royalty payments to you. The particular amount of the royalty depends on the nature of your work. Issues to consider include:

1) Will you be paid a fixed amount or a percentage of sales?

2) If it is a percentage, will it be calculated from gross income or something less?

3) How often will you get paid?

4) What rights will you have to audit the third party’s books to determine that you are receiving the full royalty?

In some situations, you may decide to forego a royalty payment. This typically occurs when the third party will use the materials in a way that generates mass advertising for you. For example, many professionals look to fix post columns as a marketing tool. Often, they will not charge the publication for the material because the resulting publicity brings sufficient profit.

In conclusion

If you are considering licensing copyrighted content, please keep the above in mind. Since such agreements are difficult to break, it is worth hiring a lawyer.

4 signs you’re not working with a professional expert witness and need to change

Expert witnesses are integral to the success or failure of litigation. Being an expert witness involves much more than offering an unbiased and well-informed opinion at trial.

Experts must be able to communicate effectively with legal teams, meet court deadlines, and prepare accurate and well-written expert reports that are admissible in a court of law. It can often be challenging to find an expert who has all of these characteristics and possesses the appropriate specialized knowledge for your case.

While factors such as experience, qualifications, professionalism, and fees are of course essential in selecting an expert, they are not foolproof reasons for making a decision. Here are four sure signs that you’ve selected the wrong expert and need to look for an alternative.

Your expert is not credible

A key part of expert evidence is the credibility of your expert both on paper and in the courtroom. Your expert must have sufficient training, education, and experience to convince the court that his opinion is well founded and deserves to be taken seriously. If your case goes to trial, it is of the utmost importance that your expert is comfortable with a trial environment and can withstand cross-examination with confidence.

If your expert does not have the education, experience, and confidence to present a credible and qualified opinion, look for better alternatives.

Your expert spends too much time as an expert witness

Typically, top experts gain their experience by spending most of their time practicing as professionals in their field. While a large amount of expert testimony is itself a good sign, spending a disproportionate amount of time on the witness stand, rather than in practice, should be a red flag. Ideally, expert witnesses should have specialized knowledge and recent practical experience in their field of expertise.

If your expert is more overused than experienced, it’s time to find another.

Your expert lacks conviction

The main duty of an expert witness is that of impartiality before the court; Witnesses must not be advocates for either party, not even the party paying their fees.

If your expert seems easily swayed by your feedback and is eager to change the substance of your report to be more in line with what you think you want to hear, it may be unwise to continue engaging their services.

Your expert charges an unreasonable fee

As with other consultants, experts set their fees based on the complexity of the case and the time required to review the files, prepare a report, and, if necessary, appear in court. However, legal teams should be wary of fee-charging experts who appear to disagree with the claims of the case at hand.

If you suspect that your expert is charging more than what might be considered reasonable for document review and expert opinion preparation, you may want to switch to another expert.

Conclusion

An impressive resume or extensive field experience alone does not qualify a professional as an expert witness. Rather, there are a wide variety of factors to consider when selecting and hiring an expert.

If your chosen expert shows one or more of the above signs, we recommend that you end your business relationship and approach Experts to find a better fit.

How to write your own business contracts: 10 key elements

Everyone knows that the best practice in business is to put agreements in writing. But many small business owners don’t. In my experience, a combination of factors contributes to this error. Business people often don’t want to add a layer of expense to the business deal by involving “the lawyers.” In addition, business agreements are often time sensitive, and as a result, people often believe that they do not have the time to consult a lawyer. Here are ten elements of any good contract. Follow these steps and you can do it yourself.

1. Put it in writing

Oral agreements are often legal and binding; however, they are generally more expensive and more difficult to enforce in court (in some situations, not enforceable at all). Most agreements must be in writing. And this is where the problem begins. I have had clients use contracts from a trade agreement in a second different situation with disastrous results. A written agreement is less risky than an oral agreement, but only if you have a document that clearly spells out each party’s rights and obligations in the event of a disagreement. Using form partnership agreements or online provider contracts can be just as bad as reusing old agreements without carefully reviewing them. In one case I represented a partner in a partnership dispute. The parties had purchased a partnership agreement online and the agreement specifically allowed individual partners to compete with the partnership. While that clause is contrary to common sense, neither party read the agreement and grasped it. Therefore, it was required to great shock of one of the partners.

2. Keep your deal in order.

Contrary to what many lawyers think, it doesn’t take a lot of legal fluff to make a contract enforceable. Instead, what is required are short, clear sentences with a simple and logical heading system that provides a roadmap for the reader as to what is in the paragraph. And yes, you can write your own contract if you put in the effort.. Just like you might change the oil in a modern car or work on the tile in your bathroom. You have to weigh the cost against the benefit of using a lawyer. An experienced lawyer should be able to quote you a flat fee, upfront and with no obligation, so it doesn’t hurt to ask.

3. Deal with the person you can hire on behalf of the company.

Don’t waste time negotiating a business deal with a junior person who has to approve everything with someone above him (or her) in the business. If you’re not sure who has the authority to bind a company, ask.

4. Describe the parts accurately.

Include the correct legal names of the parties to the contract. Make it clear who is responsible for doing what.

5. Include the details in the written agreement.

The agreement must establish the rights and obligations of each party. Most lawyers include language in a contract that states that the written agreement is the entire agreement between the parties.

6. Specify the payment obligations.

Obviously, most contracts arise from deals in which one party provides goods or services and the other pays for them. Specify when payments must be made and the conditions for making payments. If you are going to pay in installments or only when the job is completed to your satisfaction, say so and list the dates, times, and requirements. Consider including the method of payment as well: check, cashier’s check, or credit card.

7. Agree on the circumstances that terminate the contract.

It makes sense to establish the circumstances under which the parties can terminate the contract. For example, if one party misses too many important deadlines, the other party should have the right to terminate the contract without being legally embarrassed for breaching (violating) the agreement.

8. Specify how disputes will be resolved and whether the prevailing party will receive attorneys’ fees and costs.

Write in your agreement what you and the other party will do if something goes wrong. I’m not a fan of arbitration. Particularly in California it is a very expensive proposition with retired judges acting as arbitrators and demanding stupendous fees. Many judges openly admit that they retired from the bench to earn more money as referees. You also want to carefully consider whether the winning party in a legal dispute will receive attorneys’ fees and costs of the lawsuit, such as filing fees, deposition fees, and the like. This may be a good idea if you have to fight for a modest amount like $100,000.00 (I know, I know… Right now you’re thinking I have an unusual idea of ​​modesty!) The reality is that without the attorneys fee clause, you could have a nominal victory just because arbitrations and lawsuits are expensive. On the other hand, if you are more likely to breach the contract than the other side, you may not want an attorneys’ fees/costs clause.

9. Choose a state law to govern the contract.

If you and the other party are in different states, you should choose only one of your state’s laws to apply to the contract to avoid difficult legal disputes later, and I can think of no reason why you would agree to litigate under the laws of a state other than California as I write this. In addition, you want to specify where you will mediate, arbitrate, or bring legal action under the contract. This is an important thing to consider when you are presented with a contract by another party. For example, if you want to become a franchisee and end up having a legal dispute, you may have to continue thousands of miles away based on state laws that differ greatly from California law.

10. Keep it confidential.

Often, when one company contracts with another to perform a service, the other company becomes private for sensitive business information. Your agreement must contain mutual promises that each party will maintain the confidentiality of any business information of which it becomes aware while performing the contract. This clause is very different from a non-compete clause. California’s laws regarding non-compete clauses are unique and the subject of another post.

Conflict Resolution Training for Business Success

Conflict resolution training goes by other names depending on the degree program and concentration being sought. Degree programs are also identified by names such as negotiation training, peace studies, dispute resolution, reconciliation, and conflict mediation. This may also depend on whether one is earning a degree from a business school, law school, international relations department, political science department, or a degree in public policy or another program. This also determines the types of courses that may be required to complete the curriculum requirements.

While conflict is a fact of life, it doesn’t necessarily have to be a negative thing. Conflict, when handled skillfully, can result in productivity, innovation, and growth. This is particularly true in commercial and social negotiations. For example, if you are a mediator in procurement and contract negotiation, he can help the company get the best deals at the best rates.

In general, conflict resolution training tends to be interdisciplinary with required courses from various departments including ethics, psychology, counseling, policy, organizational development, sociology, interpersonal communications, cross-cultural communication, leadership and management, and law and legal problem solving. Of course, this will vary by program, but the degree program is likely to be based on several disciplines. Additionally, coursework may be part of the program and may include conflict theory, negotiation theory, dispute systems design, and alternative dispute resolution.

Program objectives may vary, but may include understanding the following: conflict management strategies, conflict styles, managing negative behavior, conflict management models, dispute management, conflict styles, managing hostility and aggression, and balancing assertiveness and empathy, to name a few areas. These skills require both a theoretical and a practical approach to conflict management, and classes may use modeling, role-playing, practical skills clinics, internships or practicals, as well as examination of authentic case studies.

Students gain skills in cross-cultural communication, coaching, dispute resolution planning, alternative approaches to dispute resolution, needs analysis, program evaluation, facilitation, negotiation, and mediation. What can I do with the conflict resolution training you ask for?

Based on one’s prior training and credentials, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics suggests that some job titles include arbitrators, mediators, conciliators, judges, magistrates, and other court workers. These titles, of course, assume that one has some background in law and legal matters. For professionals working in international settings such as the Foreign Service, the United Nations, the Red Cross, and other non-governmental organizations (NGOs), they may work in conflict zones and policy development as part of their professional responsibilities.

Conflict resolution and mediation students come from a variety of fields including: human resource management, education, business leadership, project management, law enforcement, social services, attorneys, government, health care, nonprofit management, and much more. In other words, any field that involves human interaction and may require mediation or dispute resolution techniques would benefit from courses in this discipline. As for the level of income with training in conflict resolution, this will vary depending on all the factors mentioned above. For example, if you’re already a lawyer, your income is likely to be based on that, whereas if you trained as a counselor, your income is also based on that. However, it is a useful addition to have on your resume.

3 steps to domain name acquisition

Domain names have become a necessity nowadays. Unfortunately, acquiring a domain name can be confusing, difficult, and time consuming. Before purchasing a domain name, an online business should consider the availability of the trademark and the availability of the corporate name in addition to the availability of the domain. The main steps in acquiring a domain name are described below.

1. Availability of registered trademarks. What key trademark will the company adopt in the future to identify itself as the source of its goods or services? For the branding strategy, will the company name be the same as the brand name? Will the trademark predominantly identify the business or a specific good or service? Once those questions are answered, care must be taken to ensure that the trademark is available. Trademark clearance searches can be performed to make this determination. A search is typically performed on the United States Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) Trademark Electronic Search System (TESS). Additional trademark resources for trademark searches may include state offices and Internet searches. For a fee, commercial search services are also available and include more comprehensive search databases.

2. Availability of the company name. In addition to trademarks, many Secretary of State offices prevent the registration of company names and DBAs that are similar. Before committing to the domain name, an analysis should be done to ensure that a matching business name can actually be registered. If it’s not available, you can still purchase the domain and adopt a corresponding trademark. However, knowledge of availability in advance is helpful.

3. Availability of domain names. Finally, now that the trademark and company name issues have been resolved, the search for domain name availability can be completed. If the domain name is intended to be used in conjunction with an app, a fourth step may be needed to ensure that the domain name is available in the various app stores.

If the desired domain name is not available (either with a .com TLD or one of many other TLDs), the online business can acquire the domain name through a transfer from the third-party registrant. After acquisition, care must be taken to protect the domain from opposing parties who may try to trade the goodwill associated with the mark. Domain theft or hijacking are additional risks. The domain owner must also enable automatic renewal to prevent inadvertent loss of the domain registration.

While the above identifies a number of issues related to electronic commerce and Internet law that affect the acquisition of domain names, further analysis may be required. For more information, you can contact a domain name attorney with experience in domain name acquisition, trademark clearance, and corporate name clearance.

Disclaimer: As with any discussion of legal topics, this article is intended to be educational only and does not replace legal advice, provide legal advice, or form an attorney-client relationship with the reader. Please seek legal advice before making any decision. Also, please note that this article may not be updated, so the law and circumstances may have changed at the time you read this article.

Key components of the credit risk score in P2P loans

P2P lending connects individual or institutional investors with borrowers (companies or salaried individuals) through an online platform. By providing a viable alternative financing option, P2P is relentlessly shaping the consumer lending landscape. Consequently, P2P lending markets are flourishing all over the world. It works like a peer-to-peer network, where one investor can finance multiple loans, or one loan gets financed from multiple investors. Thus, the network shows a multitude of cross-relationships between investors and borrowers. The key challenge for P2P lending investors is the effective allocation of their funds across different risk segments. Therefore, accurate assessment of the risk involved is imperative.

What is a credit risk score?

Credit risk scoring involves ranking individual P2P loans into a series of graduated categories of increasing risk from minimal risk to high risk (see table). It is assigned taking into account not only credit history but also a combination of numerous determinants of credit risk. The lender always seeks to minimize the risk of the investment. By understanding the fundamental determinants of a credit score, you may be able to earn better returns and lower your risk of default by investing in quality loans.

Key impact variables:

  1. Credit history: It explains the creditworthiness of a borrower and the probability that a borrower will meet his financial commitments. Credit history also plays a determining role in the risk category assigned to a borrower.
  1. Debt-to-income ratio: It is a useful parameter when formulating hypotheses about the repayment capacity and financial position of a borrower.

  1. City: Borrowers are from diverse geographies and mixed ethnicities, revealing distinctive behavior. You can diversify your portfolio by selecting loans from different cities.

  1. Years of work: Number of years of work is another factor that reveals the creditworthiness of a borrower.

  1. Monthly income: It reflects the current capital condition of the borrower.

  1. % financing: It is an important determinant of a measure of the financing success of a loan within a risk category. For example, if a primary borrower has already received 50% financing, then other lenders show herd behavior so that the borrower receives financing faster.

  1. Purpose of the loan: Lenders use the purpose of the loan (Small Business Financing, Wedding Loan, Appliance Loan, Home Renovation Loan) to decide on credit risk. It also affects the interest rate that is offered.

  1. Total assets: Total assets clarify the financial status of a borrower. The greater the total assets a borrower has, the greater the probability of successful repayments and the less probability of loan default by the borrower.

These variables are statistically analyzed to assign the net return and default rate within each risk segment. In P2P lending, you are investing in unsecured loans. Therefore, lenders face a potential risk of default. But this is a manageable risk. As? For smoother and more even returns, lenders are suggested to allocate their funds in small chunks across each risk category. It’s the simple principle of investing, by not putting all your eggs in one basket! In short, peer-to-peer (P2P) lending is a thriving online credit market, with a full range of lending products and investment opportunities. By providing a viable alternative financing option, you are slowly and steadily undermining the market share of traditional financial institutions.

Nigeria’s Decades of Blood, Vol 1, A Reflection

Boer believes that he tried to present descriptions that were representative of the “facts” seen through the lenses of the two religions. (Her promise to him is that the second and third volumes will examine Muslim and Christian analyzes of the riots.) In the first chapter, the introduction, he identifies two major problems facing Christian spirituality in Nigeria. The first is the corruption that has penetrated all levels of society. The writer blames both Christians and Muslims. The second, Christian-Muslim relations, is the subject of the book. If corruption has demonized Nigeria, Boer argues that Christian-Muslim relations have plagued it. The essence of his message to Christians and Muslims is, respectively, holism and pluralism. Christians must repent of their flirtations with the language and concepts of secularism in an environment shared with Muslims and move away from it by developing a more comprehensive worldview. Muslims, on the other hand, need to update their sense of pluralism. Nigeria is now marked by a pluralistic situation that no longer allows the dominance of one religion over the entire people. Conversions of both traditional religions to Islam and Christianity have produced a Christian community that is at least numerically equal to that of Islam. Such a situation calls for new interreligious relations. Both religions have to affect attitude changes towards each other. They need to move from hostility to respect.

Boer discusses the Kuyperian perspective, often referred to as Neo-Calvinism/Kuyperianism. Kuyper’s form of pluralism would allow for the unfettered development of all worldviews on their own terms and not necessarily defined by secularism. Boer presents Kuyperiamism to Christians and Muslims as a legitimate interpretation of the Christian gospel that should, at the same time, make life and work easier for Muslims. He would allow Christians to remove the red flag of secularism that they are constantly waving in the face of Islam that evokes such passion in the hearts of Muslims. The second chapter is a discussion of the long series of religious disturbances and related activities that have plagued the nation. Boer notes that the Constituent Assembly debate on sharia in 1977 led to a long series of riots that began in the early 1980s and are a reality today. He cites a government source listing more than thirty major violent riots. In his analysis of these riots, Boers notes that they had a number of different motives. Muslims started the majority, while Christians sometimes started later riots. Others were intra-Muslim affairs, while some were initially directed against the government and eventually veered towards Christians. Riots studied include Maitatsine Series (1980, 1982, 1984 and 1985), Kano Series (1982, 1991, 1995), Kaduna Series (1987, 1992, 2000), Katsina (1991), Bauchi Series (1991, 1994 , 2000 and later), Potiskum (1994), Plateau Series (1994, 2001 and later), and Borno-Maidurguri (1998).

Six very important documents are included in the appendices that provide supporting evidence for some of the statements made about the unrest between Christians and Muslims. The titles of these documents are suggestive: The Violent Politics of Religion and Nigerian Survival: Ahmadu Bello University Professors Press Statement 1987 (Appendix 1), Submission to the Kaduna State Commission on the Investigation of the Recent Riots in Kaduna State, Chief Daniel Gowon 1987 (Appendix 2), Death and Destruction at the Baptist Seminary, Kaduna in 2000, Yusuf Gwadah (Appendix 3), The Kaduna Killing Camps?, Bala Abdullahi and Kayode Kolade 2000 (Appendix 4), Escalation of Anger, Onimissi Alao 2000 (Appendix 5) and Avoidable Carnage in Kaduna, Umar Sanda 2000 (Appendix 6). The subject index in this first volume makes it relatively easy for one to track down important topics and the footnotes and eventual bibliography attest to the number of sources consulted that give the work the credibility it deserves. Boer admitted that he did not tell everything, but the evidence presented is enough to get an idea of ​​the situation. Boer agrees that several accounts are incredible, and he’s not surprised if someone sees him that way. Seeing the ruined city of Kaduna, he quotes President Obasango as saying, “I couldn’t believe Nigerians were capable of such barbarism against each other” (p. 78).

REFLECTION

It should be stressed that Boer’s intention in this text is not to discredit Christianity and Islam, but to steer these two religions into positive channels for nation-building. Few Christians will echo Boer’s statement that he is a Christian with great respect for Islam. This is an example that all Christians should emulate. Christians and Muslims in Nigeria must respect each other. Boer suspects there is a great risk that Nigerians will tire of religious unrest and return to a sanitized form of traditional religion or an African version of secularism. Every Christian should read this text and note that Christians in Western nations are now fighting against the very secularism that they produced through their internal struggles.